CEH Practical Exam Solutions Part 1/5

MCQ CEH Practical Exam Solutions

1. Which of the following statements regarding ethical hacking is incorrect?
A. Ethical hackers should never use tools or methods that have the potential of exploiting vulnerabilities in an organization’s systems.
B. Testing should be remotely performed off-site.
C. An organization should use ethical hackers who do not sell vendor hardware/software or other consulting services.
D. Ethical hacking should not involve writing to or modifying the target systems.

2. First thing you do every office day is to check your email inbox. One morning, you received an email from your best friend and the subject line is quite strange. What should you do?
A. Delete the email and pretend nothing happened.
B. Forward the message to your supervisor and ask for her opinion on how to handle the situation.
C. Forward the message to your company’s security response team and permanently delete the message from your computer.
D. Reply to the sender and ask them for more information about the message contents.

3. Bob received this text message on his mobile phone: ““Hello, this is Scott Smelby from the Yahoo Bank. Kindly contact me for a vital transaction on: [email protected]””. Which statement below is true?
A. This is probably a legitimate message as it comes from a respectable organization.
B. Bob should write to [email protected] to verify the identity of Scott.
C. This is a scam as everybody can get a @yahoo address, not the Yahoo customer service employees.
D. This is a scam because Bob does not know Scott.

4. In many states sending spam is illegal. Thus, the spammers have techniques to try and ensure that no one knows they sent the spam out to thousands of users at a time. Which of the following best describes what spammers use to hide the origin of these types of e-mails?
A. A blacklist of companies that have their mail server relays configured to allow traffic only to their specific domain name.
B. Mail relaying, which is a technique of bouncing e-mail from internal to external mails servers continuously.
C. A blacklist of companies that have their mail server relays configured to be wide open.
D. Tools that will reconfigure a mail server’s relay component to send the e-mail back to the spammers occasionally.

5. Bob, your senior colleague, has sent you a mail regarding a deal with one of the clients. You are requested to accept the offer and you oblige. After 2 days, Bob denies that he had ever sent a mail. What do you want to know to prove yourself that it was Bob who had send a mail

6. The collection of potentially actionable, overt, and publicly available information is known as
Open-source intelligence

7. An IT security engineer notices that the company’s web server is currently being hacked. What should the engineer do next?
A. Unplug the network connection on the company’s web server.
B. Determine the origin of the attack and launch a counterattack.
C. Record as much information as possible from the attack.
D. Perform a system restart on the company’s web server.

8. A security consultant is trying to bid on a large contract that involves penetration testing and reporting. The company accepting bids wants proof of work so the consultant prints out several audits that have been performed. Which of the following is likely to occur as a result?
A. The consultant will ask for money on the bid because of great work.
B. The consultant may expose vulnerabilities of other companies.
C. The company accepting bids will want the same type of format of testing.
D. The company accepting bids will hire the consultant because of the great work performed.

9. What is the most secure way to mitigate the theft of corporate information from a laptop that was left in a hotel room?
A. Back up everything on the laptop and store the backup in a safe place
B. Use a strong logon password to the operating system
C. Encrypt the data on the hard drive
D. Set a BIOS password

10. Alice encrypts her data using her public key PK and stores the encrypted data in the cloud. Which of the following attack scenario will compromise the privacy of her data?
Alice also stores her private key in the cloud, and Harry breaks into the cloud server as before

11. A hacker is an intelligent individual with excellent computer skills that grant them the ability to explore a computer’s software and hardware without the owner’s permission. Their intention can either be to simply gain knowledge or to illegally make changes. Which of the following class of hacker refers to individual who work both offensively and defensively at various times?
Gray Hat
Black Hat
Suicide Hacker (Don’t bother suffering long term jail)
White Hat

12. Nation-state threat actors often discover vulnerabilities and hold on to them until they want to launch a sophisticated attack. The Stuxnet attack was an unprecedented style of attack because it used four types of vulnerability. What is this style of attack called?
A. zero-day
B. zero-hour
C. zero-sum
D. no-day

13. A newly discovered flaw in a software application would be considered which kind of security vulnerability?
A. Input validation flaw
B. HTTP header injection vulnerability
C. 0-day vulnerability
D. Time-to-check to time-to-use flaw

14. Assume a business-crucial web-site of some company that is used to sell handsets to the customers worldwide. All the developed components are reviewed by the security team on a monthly basis. In order to drive business further, the web-site developer decided to add some 3rd party tools on it. The tools are written in Javascript and can track the customers’ activity on the site. These tools are located on the servers of the marketing company. What is the main security risk associated with this scenario?
External script contents could be maliciously modified without the security team knowledge

15. An IT employee got a call from one of our best customers. The caller wanted to know about the company’s network infrastructure, systems, and team. New opportunities of integration are in sight for both company and customer. What should this employee do?
A. Since the company’s policy is all about Customer Service, he/she will provide information.
B. Disregarding the call, the employee should hang up.
C. The employee should not provide any information without previous management authorization.
D. The employees can not provide any information; but, anyway, he/she will provide the name of the person in charge.

16. A well-intentioned researcher discovers a vulnerability on the web site of a major corporation. What should he do?
Ignore it.
Try to sell the information to a well-paying party on the dark web.
Exploit the vulnerability without harming the web site owner so that attention be drawn to the problem.
Notify the web site owner so that corrective action be taken as soon as possible to patch the vulnerability.

17. To reduce the attack surface of a system, administrators should perform which of the following processes to remove unnecessary software, services, and insecure configuration settings?
A. Harvesting
B. Windowing
C. Hardening
D. Stealthing

18. An unauthorized individual enters a building following an employee through the employee entrance after the lunch rush. What type of breach has the individual just performed?
Reverse Social Engineering

19. Jimmy is standing outside a secure entrance to a facility. He is pretending to having a tense conversation on his cell phone as an authorized employee badges in. Jimmy, while still on the phone, grabs the door as it begins to close. What just happened?
Tailgating (Piggybacking)

20. It is an entity or event with the potential to adversely impact a system through unauthorized access, destruction, disclosure, denial of service or modification of data.
Which of the following terms best matches the definition?
A. Threat
B. Attack
C. Vulnerability
D. Risk

21. A certified ethical hacker (CEH) is approached by a friend who believes her husband is cheating. She offers to pay to break into her husband’s email account in order to find proof so she can take him to court. What is the ethical response?
A. Say no; the friend is not the owner of the account.
B. Say yes; the friend needs help to gather evidence.
C. Say yes; do the job for free.
D. Say no; make sure that the friend knows the risk she’s asking the CEH to take.

22. A computer technician is using a new version of a word processing software package when it is discovered that a special sequence of characters causes the entire computer to crash. The technician researches the bug and discovers that no one else experienced the problem. What is the appropriate next step?
A. Ignore the problem completely and let someone else deal with it.
B. Create a document that will crash the computer when opened and send it to friends.
C. Find an underground bulletin board and attempt to sell the bug to the highest bidder.
D. Notify the vendor of the bug and do not disclose it until the vendor gets a chance to issue a fix.

23. While you were gathering information as part of security assessments for one of your clients, you were able to gather data that show your client is involved with fraudulent activities. What should you do?
A. Immediately stop work and contact the proper legal authorities
B. Ignore the data and continue the assessment until completed as agreed
C. Confront the client in a respectful manner and ask her about the data
D. Copy the data to removable media and keep it in case you need it

24. A consultant has been hired by the V.P. of a large financial organization to assess the company’s security posture. During the security testing, the consultant comes across child pornography on the V.P.’s computer.
What is the consultant’s obligation to the financial organization?
A. Say nothing and continue with the security testing.
B. Stop work immediately and contact the authorities.
C. Delete the pornography, say nothing, and continue security testing.
D. Bring the discovery to the financial organization’s human resource department.

25. Your company performs penetration tests and security assessments for small and medium-sized business in the local area. During a routine security assessment, you discover information that suggests your client is involved in human trafficking.
What should you do?
Immediately stop work and contact the proper legal authorities
Confront the client in a respectful manner and ask her about the data
Copy the data to removable media and keep it in case you need it
Ignore the data and continue the assessment until completed as agreed

26. A certified ethical hacker (CEH) completed a penetration test of the main headquarters of a company almost two months ago, but has yet to get paid. The customer is suffering from financial problems, and the CEH is worried that the company will go out of business and end up not paying. What actions should the CEH take?
A. Threaten to publish the penetration test results if not paid.
B. Follow proper legal procedures against the company to request payment.
C. Tell other customers of the financial problems with payments from this company.
D. Exploit some of the vulnerabilities found on the company webserver to deface it.

27. An ethical hacker for a large security research firm performs penetration tests, vulnerability tests, and risk assessments. A friend recently started a company and asks the hacker to perform a penetration test and vulnerability assessment of the new company as a favor. What should the hacker’s next step be before starting work on this job?
A. Start by foot printing the network and mapping out a plan of attack.
B. Ask the employer for authorization to perform the work outside the company.
C. Begin the reconnaissance phase with passive information gathering and then move into active information gathering.
D. Use social engineering techniques on the friend’s employees to help identify areas that may be susceptible to attack.

28. Sophia travels a lot and worries that her laptop containing confidential documents might be stolen. What is the best protection that will work for her?
BIOS password
Password protected files
Hidden folders
Full disk encryption

29. Backing up data is a security must. However, it also has certain level of risks when mishandled. Which of the following is the greatest threat posed by backups?
A. A backup is the source of Malware or illicit information
B. A backup is incomplete because no verification was performed
C. A backup is unavailable during disaster recovery
D. An unencrypted backup can be misplaced or stolen

30. A bank stores and processes sensitive privacy information related to home loans. However, auditing has never been enabled on the system. What is the first step that the bank should take before enabling the audit feature?
Perform a cost/benefit analysis of the audit feature
Determine the impact of enabling the audit feature
Perform a vulnerability scan of the system
Allocate funds for staffing of audit log review

31. Low humidity in a data center can cause which of the following problems?
A. Heat
B. Corrosion
C. Static electricity
D. Airborne contamination

32. Which of the following examples best represents a logical or technical control?
A. Security tokens
B. Heating and air conditioning
C. Smoke and fire alarms
D. Corporate security policy

33. What is one thing a tester can do to ensure that the software is trusted and is not changing or tampering with critical data on the back end of a system it is loaded on?
A. Proper testing
B. Secure coding principles
C. Systems security and architecture review
D. Analysis of interrupts within the software

34. What would you type on the Windows command line in order to launch the Computer Management Console provided that you are logged in as an admin?
A. c:\\compmgmt.msc
B. c:\\gpedit
C. c:\\ncpa.cpl
D. c:\\services.msc

35. If you are to determine the attack surface of an organization, which of the following security operations is the BEST thing to do?
A. Running a network scan to detect network services in the corporate DMZ
B. Reviewing the need for a security clearance for each employee
C. Using configuration management to determine when and where to apply security patches
D. Training employees on the security policy regarding social engineering

36. A big company, who wanted to test their security infrastructure, wants to hire elite pen testers like you. During the interview, they asked you to show sample reports from previous penetration tests. What should you do?
A. Share reports, after NDA is signed
B. Share full reports, not redacted
C. Decline but, provide references
D. Share full reports with redactions

37. Your next door neighbor, that you do not get along with, is having issues with their network, so he yells to his spouse the network’s SSID and password and you hear them both clearly. What do you do with this information?
A. Nothing, but suggest to him to change the network’s SSID and password.
B. Sell his SSID and password to friends that come to your house, so it doesn’t slow down your network.
C. Log onto to his network, after all it’s his fault that you can get in.
D. Only use his network when you have large downloads so you don’t tax your own network.

38. What network security concept requires multiple layers of security controls to be placed throughout an IT infrastructure, which improves the security posture of an organization to defend against malicious attacks or potential vulnerabilities?
A. Security through obscurity
B. Host-Based Intrusion Detection System
C. Defense in depth
D. Network-Based Intrusion Detection System

39. You are performing a penetration test. You achieved access via a buffer overflow exploit and you proceed to find interesting data, such as files with usernames and passwords. You find a hidden folder that has the administrator’s bank account password and login information for the administrator’s bitcoin account.
What should you do?
Transfer money from the administrator’s account to another account.
Do not report it and continue the penetration test.
Do not transfer the money but steal the bitcoins.
Report immediately to the administrator.

40. Scenario: 1. Victim opens the attacker’s web site.
2. Attacker sets up a web site which contains interesting and attractive content like ‘Do you want to make $1000 in a day?’.
3. Victim clicks to the interesting and attractive content url.
4. Attacker creates a transparent ‘iframe’ in front of the url which victim attempt to click, so victim thinks that he/she clicks to the ‘Do you want to make $1000 in a day?’ url but actually he/she clicks to the content or url that exists in the transparent ‘iframe’ which is setup by the attacker. What is the name of the attack which is mentioned in the scenario?
A. HTTP Parameter Pollution (Manipulating query parameters on URL)
B. HTML Injection (Control input point to inject arbitrary HTML code into vulnerable page)
C. Session Fixation (Hijack valid user session, allows one person to fixate another person session ID)
D. ClickJacking Attack (UI redress attack when user is tricked to click on something)

41. Which type of security feature stops vehicles from crashing through the doors of a building?
A. Turnstile
B. Bollards
C. Mantrap
D. Receptionist

42. During a security audit of IT processes, an IS auditor found that there were no documented security procedures. What should the IS auditor do?
A. Identify and evaluate existing practices
B. Create a procedures document
C. Conduct compliance testing
D. Terminate the audit

43. Which of the following is an advantage of utilizing security testing methodologies to conduct a security audit?
A. They provide a repeatable framework.
B. Anyone can run the command line scripts.
C. They are available at low cost.
D. They are subject to government regulation.

44. Which of the following can the administrator do to verify that a tape backup can be recovered in its entirety?
A. Restore a random file.
B. Perform a full restore.
C. Read the first 512 bytes of the tape.
D. Read the last 512 bytes of the tape.

45. Knowing the nature of backup tapes, which of the following is the MOST RECOMMENDED way of storing backup tapes?
A. In a cool dry environment
B. Inside the data center for faster retrieval in a fireproof safe
C. In a climate controlled facility offsite
D. On a different floor in the same building

46. Security Policy is a definition of what it means to be secure for a system, organization or other entity. For Information Technologies, there are sub-policies like; Computer Security Policy, Information Protection Policy, Information Security Policy, Network Security Policy, Physical Security Policy, Remote Access Policy, User Account Policy. What is main theme of the sub-policies for Information Technologies?
Authenticity, Confidentiality, Integrity
Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability
Availability, Non-repudiation, Confidentiality
Authenticity, Integrity, Non-repudiation

47. An enterprise recently moved to a new office and the new neighborhood is a little risky. The CEO wants to monitor the physical perimeter and the entrance doors 24 hours. What is the best option to do this job?
A. Use fences in the entrance doors.
B. Install a CCTV with cameras pointing to the entrance doors and the street.
C. Use an IDS in the entrance doors and install some of them near the corners.
D. Use lights in all the entrance doors and along the company’s perimeter.

48. If executives are found liable for not properly protecting their company’s assets and information systems, what type of law would apply in this situation?

49. Which type of security document is written with specific step-by-step details?
A. Process
B. Procedure
C. Policy
D. Paradigm

50. A security policy will be more accepted by employees if it is consistent and has the support of
A. coworkers.
B. executive management.
C. the security officer.
D. a supervisor.

51. Which of the following is a detective control?
A. Smart card authentication
B. Security policy
C. Audit trail
D. Continuity of operations plan

52. Which of the following is a preventive control?
A. Smart card authentication
B. Security policy
C. Audit trail
D. Continuity of operations plan

53. A Network Administrator was recently promoted to Chief Security Officer at a local university. One of employee’s new responsibilities is to manage the implementation of an RFID card access system to a new server room on campus. The server room will house student enrollment information that is securely backed up to an off-site location.
During a meeting with an outside consultant, the Chief Security Officer explains that he is concerned that the existing security controls have not been designed properly. Currently, the Network Administrator is responsible for approving and issuing RFID card access to the server room, as well as reviewing the electronic access logs on a weekly basis.
Which of the following is an issue with the situation?
A. Segregation of duties
B. Undue influence
C. Lack of experience
D. Inadequate disaster recovery plan

54. A company has hired a security administrator to maintain and administer Linux and Windows-based systems.
Written in the nightly report file is the following:
Firewall log files are at the expected value of 4 MB. The current time is 12am. Exactly two hours later the size has decreased considerably. Another hour goes by and the log files have shrunk in size again.
Which of the following actions should the security administrator take?
A. Log the event as suspicious activity and report this behavior to the incident response team immediately.
B. Log the event as suspicious activity, call a manager, and report this as soon as possible.
C. Run an anti-virus scan because it is likely the system is infected by malware.
D. Log the event as suspicious activity, continue to investigate, and act according to the site’s security policy.

55. The precaution of prohibiting employees from bringing personal computing devices into a facility is what type of security control?
A. Physical
B. Procedural
C. Technical
D. Compliance

56. Which of the following business challenges could be solved by using a vulnerability scanner?
A. Auditors want to discover if all systems are following a standard naming convention.
B. A web server was compromised and management needs to know if any further systems were compromised.
C. There is an emergency need to remove administrator access from multiple machines for an employee that quit.
D. There is a monthly requirement to test corporate compliance with host application usage and security policies.

57. How can a policy help improve an employee’s security awareness?
A. By implementing written security procedures, enabling employee security training, and promoting the benefits of security
B. By using informal networks of communication, establishing secret passing procedures, and immediately terminating employees
C. By sharing security secrets with employees, enabling employees to share secrets, and establishing a consultative help line
D. By decreasing an employee’s vacation time, addressing ad-hoc employment clauses, and ensuring that managers know employee strengths

58. Due to a slowdown of normal network operations, IT department decided to monitor internet traffic for all of the employees. From a legal stand point, what would be troublesome to take this kind of measure?
A. All of the employees would stop normal work activities
B. IT department would be telling employees who the boss is
C. Not informing the employees that they are going to be monitored could be an invasion of privacy.
D. The network could still experience traffic slow down.

59. Craig received a report of all the computers on the network that showed all the missing patches and weak passwords. What type of software generated this report?
A. a port scanner
B. a vulnerability scanner
C. a virus scanner
D. a malware scanner

60. Which of the following processes evaluates the adherence of an organization to its stated security policy?
A. Vulnerability assessment
B. Penetration testing
C. Risk assessment
D. Security auditing

61. The intrusion detection system at a software development company suddenly generates multiple alerts regarding attacks against the company’s external webserver, VPN concentrator, and DNS servers. What should the security team do to determine which alerts to check first?
A. Investigate based on the maintenance schedule of the affected systems.
B. Investigate based on the service level agreements of the systems.
C. Investigate based on the potential effect of the incident.
D. Investigate based on the order that the alerts arrived in.

62. As a Certified Ethical Hacker, you were contracted by a private firm to conduct an external security assessment through penetration testing.
What document describes the specifics of the testing, the associated violations, and essentially protects both the organization’s interest and your liabilities as a tester?
Project Scope
Rules of Engagement
Service Level Agreement
Non-Disclosure Agreement

63. In an internal security audit, the white hat hacker gains control over a user account and attempts to acquire access to another account’s confidential files and information. How can he achieve this?
A. Port Scanning
B. Hacking Active Directory
C. Privilege Escalation
D. Shoulder-Surfing

64. Least privilege is a security concept that requires that a user is
A. limited to those functions required to do the job.
B. given root or administrative privileges.
C. trusted to keep all data and access to that data under their sole control.
D. given privileges equal to everyone else in the department.

65. When creating a security program, which approach would be used if senior management is supporting and enforcing the security policy?
A. A bottom-up approach
B. A top-down approach
C. A senior creation approach
D. An IT assurance approach

66. Defining rules, collaborating human workforce, creating a backup plan, and testing the plans are within what phase of the Incident Handling Process?
A. Preparation phase
B. Containment phase
C. Recovery phase
D. Identification phase

67. What is the term coined for logging, recording and resolving events in a company?
A. Internal Procedure
B. Security Policy
C. Incident Management Process
D. Metrics

68. Describes the specifics of the testing, the associated violations, and essentially protects both the bank’s interest and your liabilities as a tester?
A. Service Level Agreement
B. Non-Disclosure Agreement
C. Terms of Engagement
D. Project Scope

69. Which initial procedure should an ethical hacker perform after being brought into an organization?
A. Begin security testing.
B. Turn over deliverables.
C. Sign a formal contract with non-disclosure.
D. Assess what the organization is trying to protect.

70. Which of the following ensures that updates to policies, procedures, and configurations are made in a controlled and documented fashion?
A. Regulatory compliance
B. Peer review
C. Change management
D. Penetration testing

71. How do employers protect assets with security policies pertaining to employee surveillance activities?
A. Employers promote monitoring activities of employees as long as the employees demonstrate trustworthiness.
B. Employers use informal verbal communication channels to explain employee monitoring activities to employees.
C. Employers use network surveillance to monitor employee email traffic, network access, and to record employee keystrokes.
D. Employers provide employees written statements that clearly discuss the boundaries of monitoring activities and consequences.

72. Which United States legislation mandates that the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) must sign statements verifying the completeness and accuracy of financial reports?
A. Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX)
B. Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA)
C. Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act (FACTA)
D. Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA)

73. It has been reported to you that someone has caused an information spillage on their computer. You go to the computer, disconnect it from the network, remove the keyboard and mouse, and power it down. What step in incident handling did you just complete?
A. Containment (Keeping something harmful under control)
B. Eradication (Removing cause of incident)
C. Recovery (Restoration, back to normal)
D. Discovery

74. Which vital role does the U.S. Computer Security Incident Response Team (CSIRT) provide?
A. Incident response services to any user, company, government agency, or organization in partnership with the Department of Homeland Security
B. Maintenance of the nation’s Internet infrastructure, builds out new Internet infrastructure, and decommissions old Internet infrastructure
C. Registration of critical penetration testing for the Department of Homeland Security and public and private sectors
D. Measurement of key vulnerability assessments on behalf of the Department of Defense (DOD) and State Department, as well as private sectors

75. Which of the following is a primary service of the U.S. Computer Security Incident Response Team (CSIRT)?
A. CSIRT provides an incident response service to enable a reliable and trusted single point of contact for reporting computer security incidents worldwide.
B. CSIRT provides a computer security surveillance service to supply a government with important intelligence information on individuals travelling abroad.
C. CSIRT provides a penetration testing service to support exception reporting on incidents worldwide by individuals and multi-national corporations.
D. CSIRT provides a vulnerability assessment service to assist law enforcement agencies with profiling an individual’s property or company’s asset.

76. What are the three types of compliance that the Open Source Security Testing Methodology Manual (OSSTMM) recognizes?
A. Legal, performance, audit
B. Audit, standards based, regulatory
C. Contractual, regulatory, industry
D. Legislative, contractual, standards based

77. Under the “Post-attack Phase and Activities”, it is the responsibility of the tester to restore the systems to a pretest state.
Which of the following activities should not be included in this phase?
I. Removing all files uploaded on the system
II. Cleaning all registry entries
III. Mapping of network state
IV. Removing all tools and maintaining backdoor for reporting
C. III and IV
D.All should be included

78.It is a regulation that has a set of guidelines, which should be adhered to by anyone who handles any electronic medical data. These guidelines stipulate that all medical practices must ensure that all necessary measures are in place while saving, accessing, and sharing any electronic medical data to keep patient data secure.
 Which of the following regulations best matches the description?
ISO/IEC 27002

79. Which of the following act requires employers standard national numbers to identify them on standard transactions

80. Which of the following tools would be the best choice for achieving compliance with PCI Requirement 11?
A. Truecrypt
B. Sub7
C. Nessus
D. Clamwin

81. Security and privacy of/on information systems are two entities that requires lawful regulations. Which of the following regulations defines security and privacy controls for Federal information systems and organizations?
A. NIST SP 800-53
C. EU Safe Harbor

82. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard 27002 provides guidance for compliance by outlining
A. guidelines and practices for security controls.
B. financial soundness and business viability metrics.
C. standard best practice for configuration management.
D. contract agreement writing standards.

83. What is the name of the international standard that establishes a baseline level of confidence in the security functionality of IT products by providing a set of requirements for evaluation?
A. Blue Book
B. ISO 26029
C. Common Criteria
D. The Wassenaar Agreement

84. Which of the following guidelines or standards is associated with the credit card industry?
A. Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology (COBIT)
B. Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX)
C. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
D. Payment Card Industry Data Security Standards (PCI DSS)

85. This international organization regulates billions of transactions daily and provides security guidelines to protect personally identifiable information (PII). These security controls provide a baseline and prevent low-level hackers sometimes known as script kiddies from causing a data breach. Which of the following organizations is being described?
A. Payment Card Industry (PCI)
B. Center for Disease Control (CDC)
C. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
D. International Security Industry Organization (ISIO)

86. What is not a PCI compliance recommendation?
A. Limit access to card holder data to as few individuals as possible.
B. Use encryption to protect all transmission of card holder data over any public network.
C. Rotate employees handling credit card transactions on a yearly basis to different departments.
D. Use a firewall between the public network and the payment card data.

87. When does the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI-DSS) require organizations to perform external and internal penetration testing?
At least twice a year and after any significant infrastructure or application upgrade or modification
At least once a year and after any significant infrastructure or application upgrade or modification
At least once every two years and after any significant infrastructure or application upgrade or modification
At least once every three years and after any significant infrastructure or application upgrade or modification

88. Which of the following is NOT an ideal choice for biometric controls?
A. Iris patterns
B. Fingerprints
C. Height and weight
D. Voice

89. What are the three types of authentication?
A. Something you: know, remember, prove
B. Something you: have, know, are
C. Something you: show, prove, are
D. Something you: show, have, prove

90. By using a smart card and pin, you are using a two-factor authentication that satisfies
A. Something you know and something you are
B. Something you have and something you know
C. Something you have and something you are
D. Something you are and something you remember

91. Which of the following is an example of two factor authentication?
A. PIN Number and Birth Date
B. Username and Password
C. Digital Certificate and Hardware Token
D. Fingerprint and Smartcard ID

92. Which set of access control solutions implements two-factor authentication?
A. USB token and PIN
B. Fingerprint scanner and retina scanner
C. Password and PIN
D. Account and password

93. Bob learned that his username and password for a popular game has been compromised. He contacts the company and resets all the information. The company suggests he use two-factor authentication, which option below offers that?
A new username and password
Disable his username and use just a fingerprint scanner.
His username and a stronger password
A fingerprint scanner and his username and password

94. Todd has been asked by the security officer to purchase a counter-based authentication system. Which of the following best describes this type of system?
A. A biometric system that bases authentication decisions on behavioral attributes.
B. A biometric system that bases authentication decisions on physical attributes.
C. An authentication system that creates one-time passwords that are encrypted with secret keys.
D. An authentication system that uses passphrases that are converted into virtual passwords.

95. Steve, a scientist who works in a governmental security agency, developed a technological solution to identify people based on walking patterns and implemented this approach to a physical control access. A camera captures people walking and identifies the individuals using Steve’s approach. After that, people must approximate their RFID badges. Both the identifications are required to open the door. In this case, we can say:
Ans: The solution implements the two authentication factors: physical object and physical characteristic

96. Which of the following is optimized for confidential communications, such as bidirectional voice and video?
A. RC4
B. RC5
C. MD4
D. MD5

97. Which type of scan measures a person’s external features through a digital video camera?
A. Iris scan
B. Retinal scan
C. Facial recognition scan
D. Signature kinetics scan

98. Which type of scan is used on the eye to measure the layer of blood vessels?
A. Facial recognition scan
B. Retinal scan
C. Iris scan
D. Signature kinetics scan

99. What is the main reason the use of a stored biometric is vulnerable to an attack?
A. The digital representation of the biometric might not be unique, even if the physical characteristic is unique.
B. Authentication using a stored biometric compares a copy to a copy instead of the original to a copy.
C. A stored biometric is no longer “something you are” and instead becomes “something you have”.
D. A stored biometric can be stolen and used by an attacker to impersonate the individual identified by the biometric.

100. What is the best defense against privilege escalation vulnerability?
A. Patch systems regularly and upgrade interactive login privileges at the system administrator level.
B. Run administrator and applications on least privileges and use a content registry for tracking.
C. Run services with least privileged accounts and implement multi-factor authentication and authorization.
D. Review user roles and administrator privileges for maximum utilization of automation services.

101. Which access control mechanism allows for multiple systems to use a central authentication server (CAS) that permits users to authenticate once and gain access to multiple systems?
A. Role Based Access Control (RBAC)
B. Discretionary Access Control (DAC)
C. Windows authentication
D. Single sign-on

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