*Two Different SOLUTION*

You are given an integer n. You should find a list of pairs (x1,y1), (x2,y2), …, (xq,yq) (1≤xi,yi≤n) satisfying the following condition.

Let’s consider some function f:N×N→N (we define N as the set of positive integers). In other words, f is a function that returns a positive integer for a pair of positive integers.

Let’s make an array a1,a2,…,an, where ai=i initially.

You will perform q operations, in i-th of them you will:

assign t=f(axi,ayi) (t is a temporary variable, it is used only for the next two assignments);

assign axi=t;

assign ayi=t.

In other words, you need to simultaneously change axi and ayi to f(axi,ayi). Note that during this process f(p,q) is always the same for a fixed pair of p and q.

In the end, there should be at most two different numbers in the array a.

It should be true for any function f.

Find any possible list of pairs. The number of pairs should not exceed 5⋅105.

Input

The single line contains a single integer n (1≤n≤15000).

Output

In the first line print q (0≤q≤5⋅105) — the number of pairs.

In each of the next q lines print two integers. In the i-th line print xi, yi (1≤xi,yi≤n).

The condition described in the statement should be satisfied.

If there exists multiple answers you can print any of them.

Examples

inputCopy

3

outputCopy

1

1 2

inputCopy

4

outputCopy

2

1 2

3 4

Note

In the first example, after performing the only operation the array a will be [f(a1,a2),f(a1,a2),a3]. It will always have at most two different numbers.

In the second example, after performing two operations the array a will be [f(a1,a2),f(a1,a2),f(a3,a4),f(a3,a4)]. It will always have at most two different numbers.